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Storytelling – the Fourth Definition

March 2, 2015 Comments off

And the final version: Denny O’Neil’s Comic Book Structure. I’ve been talking about storytelling structure on the blog for the last couple of weeks, and different people’s definitions of structure. Here’s the first post with all four definitions, then here’s part 1, part 2, and part 3 to get you caught up.

DennyONeilDenny O’Neil is a pretty famous comic book writer from the late 60’s to the 90’s. His biggest comics were Green Lantern/Green Arrow in the early 70’s, considered to be a landmark run in making comic books more relevant to current social themes, as well as being the editor of the Batman books from about 1985 to about 2000. If you know about important times in the Batman mythos, that time period is pretty key. My favorite, though is a book he started in 1987 called the Question, which included a reading list in every issue of thematically related books to each story. That’s how I came to the works of Hermann Hesse and Robert Pirsig, and my library still has many of those books that I bought because he suggested them.

O’Neil went on to teach comic book writing and had his own version of storytelling structure specific to writing comics. Here’s the outline:

  • Hook
  • Inciting incident.
  • Establish situation and conflict.
  • (Major visual action.)
  • Develop and complicate situation.
  • (Major visual action.)
  • Events leading to –
  • Climax with Major visual action.
  • Denouement

First I want to dissect this as a standard super-hero story, and then look back at it to imagine it in other genres, where it has a lot to offer.

ComicsA quick side-note. As a comic book fan, it’s important to me to mention that I’m using a typical super-hero story as the generic genre of comic books, but you should know that comic books are much more than super-heroes. There are many great comics that have nothing to do with comics, and you should check them out. No matter who you are and what your interests, there is a comic book that you would love, I’m certain. You might need to look past the first 18 shelves in your local comic store, which are all super-heroes from Marvel and DC, but they’re there, and many are awesome. Go check some out!

So the standard super-hero story is about action, and the Hook is where you grab the viewer. In a super-hero story, that means on page one, someone should be hitting someone, or saving someone from a burning building, or some other exciting action. Get the story off to an exciting start to “hook” the viewer into reading the rest of the story.

untoldlegendbatman3The Inciting incident is a behind-the-scene writing term for the moment the hero gets into the story. For our super-hero story, it might be the Joker robbing a bank, which incites Batman to catch him and bring him to justice. It’s that event that causes our hero to take action, whatever that may be.

Establishing the situation and conflict is actually not much deeper than it sounds. The story needs to set up its details. The Joker was last seen at some location, and has been known to associate with Catwoman recently. Whatever info we need to be able to follow this story.

Major Visual Action. I like this a lot, and we’ll get into why when we look at this point for other genres. In super-hero stories, it generally means a fight. Batman finds Joker, and they beat each other up for a bit before Joker escapes with the help of Catwoman who takes Batman by surprise.

Develop and complicate the situation – again, not a lot to discuss. The situation gets more developed. Batman digs into Catwoman’s last whereabouts, and discovers she was seen at the Ace Playing Card Company warehouse – might the Joker be there, too?

Major visual action – more fighting! This is why we buy super-hero comics, right? Joker and Catwoman overpower Batman because they’re on their home turf.

Events leading to the climax – more complications and development of the story. Batman figures out why Joker and Catwoman are teamed up and what their plan is, and prepares his own plan to stop them.

The climax with Major Visual Action – and they duke it out and Batman wins! Hooray! And they celebrate their victory in the denouement – the “moment after.” Like the “what’s different” moment in the Bob Reiser structure, but in French.

So what does all this comic book stuff have to do with your story? Everything. While this is specifically for comic books, and probably directly for super-hero stories, this structure has some excellent reminders for any film storyteller.

The first is that your story needs a hook. What draws the viewer in and makes them want to watch? Your story is likely to be seen in one of two places – youtube or a film festival. Both of those places have HUGE options of other films to look at. Think about your own habits. How long do you watch a youtube video before you click to look at something else? I’m a pretty rough audience and give about 10-30 seconds at most. Sometimes less, almost never more unless I know it’s something I want to see. Film Festival screeners are the same – they’ve got a stack of films to get through in a short amount of time and if you don’t hook them somehow, why are they going to take the time to watch your whole film? You have to start with something that draws us in! Your first moments are the most important moments, and they need to be something that tells me this is worth my time.

Jim CarreyThe other great reminder in this definition is the repeated “Major Visual Action.” No matter your genre, film is a visual medium, and so many of us fall into the habit of having our films talk through every moment, that we need to be nudged and pushed to make our films visual. If you have a comedy, you should include major visual comedic moments. If it’s a romance – major visual romantic moments. If it’s a drama, let me see some visual drama, not just words thrown around. It’s a great little prod to get us out of the dialogue and into the visual actions.

And those are the four storytelling structure definitions that I use – both to teach and for my own work. They each have something that helps draw out key elements in telling stories, and I suspect others find different uses for them than I do. Let me know if there’s a version you like that I don’t have here (there are LOTS of them), and please, point me to them. I’d love to add more to this list!

Holy, Holy, Holy

October 25, 2012 Comments off

I just couldn’t stop watching it. All two and a half minutes.  Actually I did stop at two minutes, but then I had to see how it ends, since I was 30 seconds away. It just keeps going until it doesn’t go anymore and ends.

It’s kinda fascinating (beyond just how many different lousy “holy…” exclamations they came up with) how cheap the animation style was. They reused so many shots and backgrounds, and just zoomed in and out on the same things over and over again. And there’s almost no actual animation in this animation. For an action/adventure cartoon they sure skimped on things actually moving.

And here’s the same thing, but from the 60’s show.

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